Showing posts with label FTP. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FTP. Show all posts

Friday, July 3, 2015

How to Connect to an FTP Site

How to Connect to an FTP Sitefrom WINDOWS /LINUX/MAC OS X:

FTP sites have been around since long before Dropbox and "the cloud" became household terms. FTP, which  stands  for File Transfer Protocol, is a long-established standard that allows file transfers over the Internet. Many organizations such as Microsoft and the Internal Revenue Service use FTP sites to distribute software, documents and other files. In many cases, you can access an FTP site without special permission, although sometimes you need a username and password. The easiest way to download files from an FTP site is with your Web browser. To upload files, you will need an FTP client application

Anonymous FTP

Most public FTP sites don't require you to have an account, and instead allow you to log in anonymously. In most cases you won't be required to log in at all, while in others you must enter "anonymous" as your username and your email address as your password. If the FTP site is restricted, which is often the case with commercial or university sites, you will be prompted to enter the username and password assigned to you by the site administrator.

Web Browser Access

Probably the simplest way to access an FTP site is with your Web browser. If you see a link to the FTP site on a Web page, just click the link. If you have only the FTP site address, enter it in your browser's address bar. Use the format ftp://ftp.domain.com. If the site requires a username or password, your browser prompts you for the information. Once you're at the site, click a folder to view its contents or click the link at the top of the page to go up a level. You can click a file to begin the download process. The main drawback to using your Web browser is that you can't upload files to the FTP site. For this, you will need an FTP client.

Windows File Explorer

If you use Windows, you already have an FTP client built into the operating system. File Explorer in Windows 8, or Windows Explorer in previous versions, doubles as both a file manager and an FTP client. Enter the FTP site address into the address bar using the format ftp://ftp.domain.com. Press "Enter" to access the FTP site and views its files and directories. The advantage of using File Explorer is that you can drag and drop files to and from the FTP site. In addition, you can right-click anywhere in the right pane and select "Add a Network Location" to begin a wizard that allows you to set up the FTP site as a permanent network drive.

Mac OS X

If you use a Mac, you can access an FTP site directly from a Finder window. Press "Command-K" and then enter the FTP site address in the form ftp://ftp.gnu.org. OS X will open a new Finder window for the FTP site. You can drag files to and from the FTP site using this window.

Other FTP Clients

If you plan to do a lot of file transfers, or you need to manage several FTP sites, you may be better off using an FTP client application. FTP clients generally are made specifically for transferring files to and from FTP sites, and include features that often make them easier to use. Some of the free clients you can download include FileZilla, WinSCP and CyberDuck.

Command Line FTP


Although this method is seldom used, it's worth mentioning the command line. Back in the dark ages of the Internet, users connected with FTP sites by typing commands on a command line. You can still connect to FTP sites using the command line in Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, but it helps if you know your way around a Unix/Linux environment. Also, you may need to modify your computer's firewall or anti-virus software settings to enable proper communication with the FTP site when you use the command line.

Friday, March 6, 2015

Differences Between FTP and TFTP

FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, and TFTP, or Trivial File Transfer Protocol, are both methods of file transfer over a network. That is where the similarities end, however. There are some very distinct differences that distinguish FTP from TFTP servers. Read on for a list of key differences.

Security

FTP is an encrypted file transfer system. This means that security measures such as password protection and encryption protect data as it is transferred. TFTP is not an encrypted file transfer system. For this reason, FTP is typically used by businesses.

Memory

When data is transferred between servers, a portion of the computer and server's memories are preoccupied during the transfer. Larger files and encrypted data take up more memory. TFTP is intended for the transfer of smaller files and does not require authentication. TFTP, therefore, requires less memory on a computer and server than FTP does.

Authentication

FTP requires authentication of a user's authority to upload and download files prior to releasing data resting on the server. Once the user is authenticated, the amount of data to which the user can have access is determined and is released simultaneously by FTP. TFTP, on the other hand, actually transfers data from the server directly to computers by breaking it down into manageable pieces that are then transferred sequentially from first to last between the server and a computer. If any piece fails to complete properly, the rest of the information is not sent.

Port Numbers

FTP utilizes TCP port connections. What this means is that it uses two different port numbers to establish two simultaneous connections. One port establishes authentication and controls the release of data based on the credentials of the user. The other port transfers data. TFTP utilizes UDP ports which make only a single connection between the server and user.

FTP is a more secure method of file sharing that makes it a more secure choice for businesses. TFTP is a better solution for those who only need to transfer a small amount of data without the need to protect it. When a request is made to access an FTP server, a session with a beginning and end is initiated. Accessing a TFTP server merely initiates the transfer of shared data.

port no for FTP
20 for Data and 21 for Control

port no for TFTP

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Monday, December 22, 2014

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Command Examples



The FTP (file transfer program) utility is used to transfer files between a local machine and remote network machine Using the File Transfer protocol. In simple terms it transfers / copies files between two computers. You can transfer files between unix systems and also non-unix systems like windows operating system using FTP.

The FTP command is simple to use and easy to learn. Let see useful examples of FTP command in detail.

FTP Command Examples:

If you are using windows operating system, open the command prompt and practice the below FTP commands. If you are using unix or linux operating systems, just simply type the ftp command on the terminal.

1. Connecting to Remote Host


First you need to connect to a remote host before doing any operations. You can use any one of the following methods to connect to a remote host. First method is
> ftp remote-server-name
connected to remote-server-name
User-Name:
Password:
ftp>

Once the ftp connects to the remote server name, it will prompt you to enter the user name and password. After successful login, your terminal or prompt changes to "ftp>".

Another method is to use the open option with ftp command. This is shown below:
>ftp
ftp>open remote-server-name
connected to remote-server-name
User-Name:
Password:
ftp>

If the ftp command fails to connect to the remote server, then you will get the below error:
ftp: connect: Connection refused

2. Copy file from remote machine to local machine.

The get option is used to download or transfer a file from the remote system to the local system.
ftp> get windows-cleveland.bat

This will download the specified file (windows-cleveland.bat) from the remote systems current directory.

3. Copying multiple files from remote machine to local machine.

You can use the get to transfer multiple files from the remote host to local host.
ftp>get *.png

This will download all the png images to the local machine.

4. Transferring file from local server to remote server

The put option is used to copy the file from the local host to the remote host.
ftp>put linux-virtual-server.rpm

This command puts the rpm file into the remote machine.

5. Transferring multiple files to the remote server.

You can use the put option to transfer more than one file from local system to the remote system.
ftp>put *.rpm

6. Executing commands in remote machine.

After connecting to the remote network machine using the ftp, you can run commands like ls to list the files, cd to change directory and many more.
ftp> ls

This will list the files and directories in the remote machines current directory.

7. Executing commands in local machine.

Once you have connected to the remote host, to run the commands on local machine you need to exit from the ftp connection. Instead of this, there is a way to run commands on local host without exiting from the ftp connection. Use the ! Symbol before the command you want to run.
ftp> !ls

Now this will list the files in the local machines current directory.

8. Changing the file transferring mode.

You can change the file transfer modes to ascii and binary modes. Use the below commands to change the mode.
ftp>ascii
ftp>binary

9. Deleting files on remote machine

You can use the delete or mdelete to remove a single file or multiple files in the remote machine.
ftp>delete linux-dedicated-server.dat
ftp>mdelete *.dat

10. Disconnecting from ftp connection.

Use the quit command to close the ftp connection.
ftp>quit

11. Using FTP command in batch scripts

The following script reads the instructions from the dat file and executes them on the remote machine.
echo "Ftp command batch script"
echo "start"
ftp -s:instructions.dat remote-host
echo "End"

The contents of the instructions.dat file is
user
password
cd /var/tmp
put oracle_storage.exe
quit

12. Getting the help about ftp command.


To know more about the ftp command, just type the help on the prompt. It will display the options/commands that you can use with ftp command.
ftp>help
Commands may be abbreviated.  Commands are:

!       disconnect mdelete  preserve  runique
$       edit       mdir     progress  send
account exit       get     prompt    sendport
append  form       mkdir    proxy     site
ascii   ftp        mls      put       size
bell    get        mode     pwd       sndbuf
binary  gate       modtime  quit      status
bye     glob       more     quote     struct
case    hash       mput     rcvbuf    sunique
cd      help       msend    recv      system
cdup    idle       newer    reget     tenex
chmod   image      nlist    rename    trace
close   lcd        nmap     reset     type
cr      less       ntrans   restart   umask
debug   lpwd       open     rhelp     user
delete  ls         page     rmdir     verbose
dir     macdef     passive  rstatus   ?